Thursday, February 3, 2011


Part Two

1.5 STI Transmission Dynamics

Many of the STIs, especially those among female are asymptomatic. They create serious reproductive health complications if remain untreated or incompletely treated. Infertility, still birth, ectopic pregnancy, repeated abortions and cervical carcinoma are some of the grave complications of STIs in females. Asymptomatic STIs take a major share of the STI load of the community. Moreover, poor decision making and lack of access to appropriate services affects treatment outcome among females.
Many STIs remain hidden due to stigma. People seek medical care in places such as unqualified practitioners, pharmacists of the medical shops, street ‘doctors’ and receive improper and ineffective treatment. Recurrence is common among STIs such as genital herpes, genital warts. In general viral STIs are difficult to treat.
Asymptomatic, hidden, maltreated and recurrent STIs are responsible for the STI load of the community (STI prevalence). This STI load acts as the potential reservoir of the sexually transmitted diseases and infections.
New STI cases (STI incidence) appear due to continuing unprotected sexual activities, especially, among those who have multiple sexual partners. The new cases of STIs add on the existing STI load of the community. Unprotected sexual acts with many partners help to spread STIs and consolidate the community burden of STIs.  This is a vicious cycle.

1.6 Flow of STI & HIV Transmission through sexual and perinatal routes

Transmission of STIs is common among high risk groups because of sexual acts with multiple partners either as a profession (sex workers) or as a preference (MSM, Transgender). Clients and partners of the sex workers act as the bridge because they carry the infections back to the relatively low risk groups (house wives, spouses of the clients of the sex workers). STIs like HIV, syphilis and gonorrhoea are also transmitted from infected mother to the child.

1.7 Factors facilitating STI in HIV positive individuals

  • Poor immune status
  • Lack of awareness on STIs
  • Low risk perception specially those on HAART
  • Desperateness in sexual expression and behavior
  • Absence of proper counseling system

1.8 Non STI genital conditions which increase vulnerability to HIV

  • Poor genital hygiene
  • Anal intercourse as it is more likely to injure tissues of receptive partner
  • Exposed adolescent girls as cervix is less effective barrier to HIV and less production of mucus in the genital tract
  • Post menopausal period due to thinning of genital mucosa and less production of mucus in the genital tract
  • Unprotected sex during menstruation due to abrasions of the skin or mucus membrane
  • Sexual violence like rape resulting in genital injury

1.9 Complications of STI

  • Cervical cancer
  • Ectopic Pregnancy, Infertility
  • Miscarriage & stillbirth
  • Foetal transmission
  • CVS & CNS complications
  • HIV infection

1.10 Challenges of STI management in women

  • Asymptomatic infection more frequent (chlamydial/gonorrhoeal cervicitis)
  • Delay in treatment seeking
  • Complications more serious than men

1 comment:

uchenna said...

Dr, this is an excellent work and i found it very exciting because it exposed me to lots of knowledge on STI management which i have longed to know more about, also the relationship between STI and HIV were elaborated. keep the good work so we can learn more,you might not know how much knowledge you impact to young health professionals.You are truly a source of inspiration in public health field.