From public health perspective, it is critical to timely diagnoze and cure the infectious TB (sputum positive pulmonary TB) because this form of TB is responsible in discharging the bacteria in the environment and making others susceptable to TB through airborne transmission. Children, elderly and those with low level immunity (HIV, prolong steroid, anti-cancer therapy, malnutrition, diabetes, chronic smokers, alcohol) are much more prone to TB disease in the high TB burden set-ups. Sputum microscopy is the best diagnostic technique so far to diagnoze infectious TB, readily avilable in the public health systems and very cheap. But it is also not fully effective to detect all the infectious TB cases (improper sputum collection, faulty slide preparation, lab technician error) and not at all effective to detect non-infectious form of TB (EP TB). Here, we have to remember one thing that EP TB is important to detect and treat in time to reduce TB related mortalities but it has no impact to break the transmission of TB.